Blog

Aug 2, 2017 · post

New Research on Interpretability

We’re excited to release the latest prototype and report from our machine intelligence R&D team: Interpretability.

FF06 Interpretability

An interpretable algorithm is one whose decisions you can explain. You can better rely on such a model to be safe, accurate and useful.

Our prototype shows how new ideas in interpretability research can be used to extract actionable insight from black-box machine learning models.

And our report describes breakthroughs in interpretability research and places them in a commercial, legal and ethical context.

This research is relevant to anyone who designs systems using machine learning, from engineers and data scientists, to business leaders and executives who are considering new product opportunities.

The Power of Interpretability

A model you can interpret and understand is one you can more easily improve. It is also one you, regulators, and society can more easily trust to be safe and nondiscriminatory. And an accurate model that is also interpretable can offer insights that can be used to change real-world outcomes for the better.

How does any of this work

There is a central tension, however, between accuracy and interpretability: the most accurate models are necessarily the hardest to understand. Our report looks closely at two recent breakthroughs that resolve this tension. New white-box algorithms offer better performance while guaranteeing interpretability. Meanwhile, model-agnostic interpretability techniques allow you to peer inside black-box models.

Our report explains how these techniques work at both a conceptual and technical level, and then discusses the commercial opportunities for their application.

Refractor

Our prototype, meanwhile, makes these possibilities concrete. We applied a model-agnostic tool called LIME to a black-box model, in order to better understand the reasons a subscription business loses customers. An accurate model that predicts which customers your business is about to lose is useful. But it’s much more useful if you can also see why they are about to leave. In this way, you learn about weaknesses in your business, and can perhaps even intervene to prevent the losses.

More Important than Ever

Work on machine learning interpretability is more important than ever. Our society is increasingly dependent on intelligent machines. Algorithms govern everything from which e-mails reach our inboxes to whether we are approved for credit to whom we get the opportunity to date. And their impact on our experience of the world is growing.

This rise in the use of algorithms coincides with a surge in the capabilities of black-box techniques, or algorithms whose inner workings cannot easily be explained. The question of interpretability has been important in applied machine learning for many years, but as relatively uninterpretable techniques like deep learning grow in popularity, it’s becoming an urgent concern. These techniques offer breakthrough capabilities in analyzing and even generating rich media and text data, but it’s often hard to figure out how they do what they do.

The future is algorithmic. Interpretable models offer a safer, more productive, and ultimately more collaborative relationship between humans and intelligent machines.

Learn More

We will host a public webinar on interpretability on September 6 2017. We’ll be joined by guests Patrick Hall (Senior Data Scientist at H2O, co-author of Ideas on Interpreting Machine Learning) and Sameer Singh (Assistant Professor of Computer Science at UC Irvine, co-creator of LIME, a model-agnostic tool for extracting explanations from black box machine learning models).

Read more

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Reports

In-depth guides to specific machine learning capabilities

Prototypes

Machine learning prototypes and interactive notebooks
Library

NeuralQA

A usable library for question answering on large datasets.
https://neuralqa.fastforwardlabs.com
Notebook

Explain BERT for Question Answering Models

Tensorflow 2.0 notebook to explain and visualize a HuggingFace BERT for Question Answering model.
https://colab.research.google.com/drive/1tTiOgJ7xvy3sjfiFC9OozbjAX1ho8WN9?usp=sharing
Notebooks

NLP for Question Answering

Ongoing posts and code documenting the process of building a question answering model.
https://qa.fastforwardlabs.com
Notebook

Interpretability Revisited: SHAP and LIME

Explore how to use LIME and SHAP for interpretability.
https://colab.research.google.com/drive/1pjPzsw_uZew-Zcz646JTkRDhF2GkPk0N

Cloudera Fast Forward Labs

Making the recently possible useful.

Cloudera Fast Forward Labs is an applied machine learning research group. Our mission is to empower enterprise data science practitioners to apply emergent academic research to production machine learning use cases in practical and socially responsible ways, while also driving innovation through the Cloudera ecosystem. Our team brings thoughtful, creative, and diverse perspectives to deeply researched work. In this way, we strive to help organizations make the most of their ML investment as well as educate and inspire the broader machine learning and data science community.

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